Esfandyar Batmanghelidj is the Founder of Bourse & Bazaar, a think tank focused on issues of economic diplomacy and development in the Middle East and Central Asia, and particularly Iran.

February 18, 2023


The Sanctions Age

On Agathe Demarais’s “Backfire: How Sanctions Reshape the World Against US Interests”

Charles De Gaulle declared in 1961, “A great state which does not possess [nuclear weapons]… does not command its own destiny.” France became the world’s fourth nuclear power in 1960 following the Gerboise Bleue nuclear test. Yet the command of…