Paolo Gerbaudo is a Senior Research Fellow at the Department of Political History, Theories and Geography of Complutense University in Madrid. He is the author of “The Digital Party” and “The Great Recoil” and is currently working on a research project on the transformation of the state.

April 11, 2024


The Electric Vehicle Developmental State

BYD exemplifies transformations in Chinese industrial policy

The rise of the Chinese EV industry has been enabled not only by generous government subsidies but also by profound changes in strategy and organization, and in particular by a distinctive revival of vertical integration—at both individual firm and national…

July 8, 2023


Solar Ambitions

Can Spain become a leading producer of renewable energy?

In Spain’s forthcoming snap elections, the energy transition is high on the agenda, and solar power at the forefront. Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez has often expressed ambitions to make Spain the lead producer of solar electricity on the continent, positioning…