Zep Kalb is currently a PhD candidate in sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles. He researches labor, social movements, and economic development in the Middle East and Central Asia.

August 23, 2023


Coercion and Inequality

The distributional effects of sanctions in Iran

“Plumbing” is an oft-used metaphor for understanding how sanctions work. Sanctions are intended to stop the flow of money to the targeted government; reserves are frozen, trade is blocked, export revenues dry up, and government budgets are drained. Even the…